AND IN LATER THEOLOGY
THE KEY TO UNDERSTANDING THE VIEW OF REALITY PRESENT IN THE ORIGINAL GREEK NEW TESTAMENT AND THEREFORE TO UNDER- STANDING THE EASTERN ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN THOUGHT WORLD (PARADIGM) IS TO BE FOUND IN THE GREEK CONCEPTS OF DYNAMIS & ENERYEIA!
In the New Testament (and the Septuagint Greek Old Testament) and in the writings of the Fathers and Mothers of the Church, there are numerous uses of enéryeia “energy, operative or actualizing power”), enérgema “effect(iveness), operation,” eneryés “energetic, efficacious,” and eneryeIn “energize, actuate, actualize.” (These words are cognate with Greek órganon “instrument” or “product.”) From Aristotle’s Physics and Metaphysics (in the middle of the fourth century before Christ) on, energy in Greek was related to dýnamis “power, capacity, faculty” as actual (realized) is related to potential: Those who thought and wrote in Greek, including the authors of the New Testament Epistles thought of energy is what makes a potential power actual or real; it is a basic aspect of being, whether created or uncreated (divine). This may all seem a bit odd in view of the English use of dynamic—which is closer to Greek “energetic.”
TO AVOID CONFUSION
From the time of Aristotle, users of Hellenstic Greek distinguished dýnamis "capacity" from enéryeia "energy," i.e. what actualizes a dýnamis.
In modern engineering science, power is the rate that work is done; work is a force acting over a distance; and energy is the capacity or potential to do work.
It is time to have proper translations of verses like Philp. 2:13: “For it is God [Who is] energizing in you all both to will and to energize for the sake of [His] being pleased”; cf. Gal. 5:6, where “faith energizing through love” is spoken of.
Since actualizations or activations of the powers of knowing and (especially) willing are energies, could a Denominationist embrace of energy offer a basis for reconciling the Reformation's exaltation of will above being and reason and Eastern views of Worship and Salvation? While such a possibility is extremely remote on several grounds, it would offer ecumenists potentially more fruitful gardens to till than the fruitless gardens they have been wont to till. If any compatibility with Orthodoxy should be aimed at, an embrace of will as energy might conceivably led to embracing ontological energy it special functions in knowing, willing, etc. But Denominationists would have to integrate the rôle of creation—i.e. created matter (Incarnation, flesh, water, wine, bread, oil, bodily resurrection, icons, etc.) and time (the rôle of tradition in unfolding truth and sifting out error from the original deposit of truth—and in perpetuating the priesthood)—into their understanding of Worship and Salvation. But their accepting creation’s having been destined to have a spiritual purpose (as a vehicle of the uncreated Energy of uncreated Grace) and time’s having a similar purpose (in tradition’s sorting out from errors the one truth able to stand for millenniums) seems, humanly speaking, not to have even a remote chance of occurring.
Thomas's followers more or less reduced actualization to form in the pair, matter : form; but they retained a distinction between habitus entitativus (sanctifying Grace) and habitus operativus. Sanctifying Grace, in contrast with Grace in Orthodox theology, is not "energetic." Thus did the scholastics distance themselves ever further from the framework of the Greek New Testament and Orthodox theology. Protopresvter John Romanides has pointed out the scholastic paradox of partaking of uncreated Essence through the created means of sanctifying Grace—defined as created by the scholastics. In connection with energy in science, Lonergan, links energy to inertia (Insight, pp. 443-444 ) in the pair inertia : energy. Whether this relating of potency : energy to the inertia :energy of current science is durable is not for me to say. (Lonergan himself puts a question mark after this suggestion.)
in the Fathers, see G. L. Prestige,
God in Patristic thought (SPCK, 1952)
and A. J. Sopko (CLICK HERE),
The theology of John Romanides (Synaxis Press, 1998)